Cannabinoid Research

Overview of Cannabinoids

Over 500 natural compounds in the cannabis plant have been discovered by scientists, including cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. Cannabis varieties contain various quantities of these compounds, resulting in diverse effect on human health.

Cannabinoids are by far the most prevalent type of chemical found in the cannabis plant, including over 100 discovered thus far. They engage with the human body’s endocannabinoid system and are considered to be responsible for the majority of the plant’s medicinal advantages. Cannabinoids are present in resin, which is most plentiful in the female flower head and is utilised to make therapeutic cannabis products.

The two most studied cannabinoids are 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, and Cannabidiol, or CBD.

Cannabinoid research

Global research on THC and CBD, and several less popular cannabinoids in cannabis, is ongoing. Some recent study findings are as follows:

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)

Effects that might occur:

  • Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, spasm reduction, antiemetic, sleepiness, intoxication, neuroprotective, appetite stimulant

CBD (Cannabidiol)

Effects that might occur:

  • Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsive, antiemetic, sleep, anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, neuroprotective, appetite stimulation, increased cognition.

THCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid)

Effects that might occur:

  • Anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, non-intoxicating spasm-reduction (seizure), appetite stimulation, sleep, neuroprotective.

CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid)

Potential effects include:

  • anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and spasm reduction.

CBG (Cannabigerol)

Potential effects include:

  • analgesic, anti-spasticity, and anti-anxiety properties.

CBC (Cannabichromene)

  • Potential effects include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-anxiety, and anti-depressant properties.

CBN (Cannabinol)

Potential effects include:

  • anti-convulsant, analgesic, sleep, and anti-inflammatory properties.

THCV (Tetrahydrocannnabivarin)

Potential effects include:

  • appetite suppression, memory enhancement, and anti-anxiety properties.

The ‘entourage effect’

According to the ‘entourage effect,’ whole plant cannabis extracts containing hundreds of active components such as terpenes, flavanoids, and cannabinoids is more efficient than isolated cannabinoids or terpenes taken separately to treat an illness.

The combinatorial ability of whole plant extract in a range of situations is being investigated.


These are important oil components that plants utilise to deter insects and grazing animals. Terpenes provide cannabis its distinct aroma and flavour. Some specialists say that terpenes can alter or improve the effects of cannabis, however research on this area is relatively restricted, and no clinical studies have been conducted.


  1. Ahmed SA., et al. ‘Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L’, Phytochemistry , vol. 117, 2015, pp. 194-199.
  2. Russo, EB, ‘Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects’, British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 163, 2011, pp. 1344-1364.
  3. Russo, E and Guy, GW., ‘A tale of two cannabinoids: The therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol’, Medical Hypotheses, vol. 66, 2006, pp. 234-246.